Background: Due to its persistent nature, ulcers brought on by Helicobacter pylori have been a significant public health concern. This study looked at how specific risk factors affected the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among peptic ulcer patients visiting medical institutions in Lafia, Nigeria.
Methods: The blood and stool samples of 180 individuals (71 men and 109 women) were collected randomly, checked for H. pylori using test strips for H. pylori antibodies and antigens (Azure Biotech Inc.), and the feces also were grown on Columbia blood agar base (TITAN Biotech Ltd). Using a standardized questionnaire, some participant risk data was also gathered.
Results: A positive culture method (CM) test result was obtained from 14/71 (19.72%) of the 71 male patients and 37/109 (33.94%) of the 109 female subjects out of a total of 210 subjects. For CM alone, it was discovered that female participants had a considerably greater incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection than their male counterparts (p=0.038). Nevertheless, all analytical techniques discovered no evidence of a significant difference between age groups (p>0.05). Only the blood antibody (BAB) approach showed a substantially greater prevalence (p=0.021) in married patients, with 79/116 (68.10%) reactive instances. The presence of drinking water source (p < 0.001, 0.001, 0.002 using CM, BAB, and SAG, respectively) and number of occupants per room (p < 0.001, 0.001, 0.002 using CM, BAB, and SAG, respectively) as potential risk factors for H. pylori infection was also demonstrated.
Conclusion: The majority of risk factors that were taken into consideration for this study demonstrated a strong correlation with Helicobacter pylori infection in Lafia, Nigeria.